A nail fungal infection or onychomycosis is known as a mycotic infection, which is caused by a fungal infection of the overall nail structure. This is also one of the most commonly known nail disorders that represent half of all the nail abnormalities that occur among adults. Nail fungus is more prevalent among older men. It affects 20 to 50 percent of people who are older than 60. This increased prevalence among older adults may be attributed to multiple factors which include reduced blood circulation, relative immunosuppression, diabetes, inactivity, and reduced growth of nails and their quality. Toenails are more affected compared to fingernails.
Around 85 to 90 percent of nail infections are caused by dermatophytes, which are fungal organisms that need keratin to grow. These are highly resistant, and they easily survive in moist, warm, and dark environments. Nail infections may also be caused by non dermatophyte molds and yeasts.
Nail fungal infections may exhibit the following symptoms: nail crumbling, thickening, and discoloration. At times the skin that can be found around the nail appears scaly or thickened. A fungal infection may infect different areas of the nail. In many cases, the tip and sides of the nail are affected first. Sometimes the top of the nail’s surface is covered with white marks. At times, the infected nail may become painful and smelly.
Most physicians based their diagnosis of nail fungal infection on the physical appearance of the nail. A nail sample is often asked to be sent to a lab to determine the microorganism that caused the infection.
Prescription oral medications are the usual nail fungus treatment given when the infection affects several nails. When only a few nails are involved, a topical medication will often do. Treatment may last for months up to a year because the nails grow slowly.
2Beans as Antimicrobial
In a study done by Instituto Politécnico Nacional in Mexico, a phytochemical screening of the bean seeds revealed that the extracts contained the following: flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. These are acknowledged to be responsible for the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the beans. Antimicrobial activity was primarily observed against Salmonella typhi.